|January issues of different magazines|
Enero 12 sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas
Noong Enero 12, 1734, ang Mount Banahaw, na isang bulkan sa pagitang-hangganan ng mga lalawigan ng Laguna at Quezon, ay pumutok.
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Ang Associacion Hispano-Filipina, na itinatag ni Miguel Morayta noong Enero 12, 1888, upang mangampaniya para magkaroon ng representasyon ang Pilipinas sa Spanish Cortes at upang maipasa ang Maura Law sa pagtataguyod ng educational reforms sa buong kapuluan.
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Ang University of the Philippines College of Law as itinatag noong Enero 12, 1911 sa panukala ni Supreme Court Associate Justice George A. Malcom (1881-1961) ng Philippine Commonwealth Supreme Court. Pansamantalang naging acting dean si Associate Justice Sherman Moreland bago siya hinalinhan ni Justice Malcolm.
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Hinirang ni Pangulong Manuel Luis Quezon ang mga unang kasapi ng Institute of National Language noong ika-12 ng Enero, 1937, sa bisa ng Commonwealth Act No. 184.
Ang unang naging chairman ng institute ay si Jaime de Veyra (1873-1963).
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Pinoy personalities and celebrities born on January 12:
Piolo Pascual on the cover of
Men’s Health Magazine, January 2010 issue
1977 – Piolo Jose Norkis Pascual, actor and model – in Manila.
CHRIST’S 12 APOSTLES
1. Simon (Peter): The "Prince of the Apostles." He was the son of Jona and a native of Bethsaida in Galilee. Christ gave him the name Cephas (Peter), the rock to which He will build his church (Matthew 16:18, John 1:42). There are many controversies surrounding the apostle Simon Peter, especially regarding his death and burial place. Some biblical historians have mistaken another man, Simon Magus (described by the Samaritans as a sorcerer that is "the great power of God" and was rebuked by Simon Peter – Acts 8:9-24) to be Peter, and that his body was buried in Vaticanus (beneath today’s Basilica of St. Peter in Rome), which was a pagan cemetery during those times, and which is very much against the Christian tradition of the time.
In the 15th century, the Roman emperor Constantine erected a church in the said burial ground, and it has been a traditional belief that Peter was indeed buried there. To this day, the Roman Catholic Church says that the tomb of Saint Peter is under the altar of the Basilica in Rome. "Only, the actual vault itself in which the body lies is no longer accessible and has not been so since the ninth century." There are those, however, who think that it would not be impossible to find the entrance and to reopen it once more. A unanimous request that this should be done was made to Pope Leo XIII by the International Archaeological Congress in 1900, but so far, without result.
In 1957, British archaeologists Jocelyn Toynbee and John Ward Perkins concluded in their painstaking investigation that there is no definite proof that Peter’s remains was buried under the dome of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome as was claimed by Pope Pius XII in his 1950 Christmas message.
On the other hand, there are archaeological proofs and documentations that Simon Peter’s burial place was in Jerusalem, near the Mount of Olives. The 1958 book Gli Scavi del Dominus Flevit, documented that an ossuary was found beneath a monastery in the Jerusalem site called Dominus Flevit with an Aramaic inscription that read Simon Bar-Jona, a named mentioned by Christ in Matthew 16:17. The book was written by P. B. Bagatti and J. T. Milik, both Roman Catholic priests.
Another book, Peter’s Tomb Recently Discovered In Jerusalem, written by F. Paul Peterson also detailed the circumstances and evidences underlying the fact that the Apostle Peter was indeed buried in Jerusalem and not in Rome.
There are also those who ascribed him as the first pope1 because he was allegedly martyred and again buried (again) in Rome, but this is not the universally accepted fact. Many Biblical scholars dispute the fact of Peter’s alleged presence in Rome during the prescribed time (A.D 41 to 66), much more he’s burial in the place then called Vaticanus. In fact the Bible itself disputes this claim.
According to the Book of the Acts of the Apostles, Peter was in Joppa and then to Caesarea (Palestines), ministering unto the household of Cornelius (Acts 10, historically around A.D. 42 to 43), was imprisoned by King Herod2 (Agrippa I) in Jerusalem (Acts 12), and was preaching in Jerusalem (Acts 13, A.D. 46-52). In the Epistle of Paul to the Galatians, Paul mentioned his return to Jerusalem after 14 years (A.D. 61) where he met Peter and the other disciples, and soon after that met Peter again in Antioch (Turkey), where he "withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed," (Galatians 2:11) and said to Peter, "If you, being a Jew, live in the manner of Gentiles and not as the Jews, why do you compel Gentiles to live as Jews?" (Galatians 2:14).
2. Andrew3: Peter’s brother. His name means “valor.” He was the “Herald of the Kingdom of God” to the inhabitants of Cappadocia, Galatia and Bithynia; to the savage tribes of the Scythian deserts; and to the people of Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly and Achaea. He was first the disciple of John the Baptist before he met the Messiah, and later on brought his brother Peter, and together became Christ’s apostles (John 1:35-42). Early accounts place the field of his apostolate in Greece, Russia and Asia Minor, and in Palestine.
3. James, son of Zebedee: Along with Peter and John, they alone witnessed Christ’s Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1-8, Mark 9:2-8, Luke 9:28-36), and accompanied the Lord in the Garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 26:36-38, Mark 14:32-34). The Lord Jesus called James and his brother John, Boanerges, meaning “Men of Thunder.” Contrary to popular belief, Peter (Cephas) was not the head of the Apostolic Church in Jerusalem, but James. In fact, James was the first patriarch of Jerusalem, who presided over and gave judgment over the arguments between Paul and Peter regarding “concerns over whether Gentile Christians need be circumcised to be saved” (Acts 15:1-21); hence he is sometimes called James the Just. His name means “Holder of the Heel.”He was the first apostle to die a martyr’s death in Jerusalem during the reign of Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:1-2), about A.D. 44. He was much respected in Spain where he was called Santiago. A shrine was erected in Compostela, Spain, in his honor.
4. John (also known as John the Evangelist and John the Divine): Author of the fourth Gospel, the three epistles and the Book of Revelation. John, like Peter and Andrew, operated a small fishing business with his father, Zebedee, and his brother, James, on the Lake of Galilee (Matthew 4:18-21, Mark 1:16-20, Luke 5:1-11). He was a constant companion of Peter in Christ’s ministry. Believed to have lived out his life in exile on the island of Patmos and died at Ephesus in about A.D.100.
5. Philip: Like Peter, he was a native of Bethsaida. His name always appears in the fifth place in the apostolic list after the pairs of brothers, Peter and Andrew, and James and John. Aside from figuring in three episodes in the John’s Gospel, nothing certain is known about Philip’s later apostolic activities. Most of his ministry took place in Galatia (in Turkey) and it is believed that at the age of 87, he suffered martyrdom in Hierapolis of Phrygia. In some accounts, he is supposed to have preached the Gospel in Phrygia, Scythia and Lydia.
6. Bartholomew: Many biblical scholars identify Bartholomew with Nathanael whom Philip introduced to the Lord Jesus (John 1:45-51) and among those who ate breakfast with Him at the shore of the Sea of Tibirias after His Resurrection (John 21:1-14). Nathanael is said to be the given name and Bartholomew is an Aramaic patronymic meaning “son of Talmai.” Traditions represent Bartholomew as preaching in India and martyred by being flayed alive and crucified in Armenia (or Cilicia?). He is portrayed in Michelangelo’s Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel as carrying his skin in his hand.
7. Thomas: He was also called Didymus (John 11:16, 20:24), which in Greek means “Twin.” He was the unbeliever (of Christ’s Resurrection) in the cenacle (John 20:25), but later confessed divinity upon seeing the resurrected Christ (John 20:26-29). Some biblical scholars maintain that Thomas journeyed to as far away as China and, in India, supposedly founded seven churches at Malabar, and was martyred near Madras. Members of the ancient Christian churches of southern India are called “Christians of Saint Thomas.”
8. Matthew: Author of the first Gospel. He was a resident of Galilee, a tax collector by profession and the son of a certain Alphaeus (Mark 2:13-14) and had a brother named James (Acts: 1:13). Though he was a sinner, when he was called upon by the Lord Jesus to follow Him, he immediately did so without doubt or apprehension (Matthew 9:9, Luke 5:27-28). He was called by the name Levi by Mark and Luke, and was believed to have carried the Gospel to the Middle East and the Black Sea region, to Africa as far away as Ethiopia. The Lord’s Prayer in Matthean form (Matthew 6:9-13) is in daily use in Christian worship.
9. James, son of Alphaeus: Very little is known about this apostle except that his name appears in the last group of apostles listed in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.
10. Thaddeus4: Many biblical scholars believe that Thaddeus, Jude (or Judas, son of James) and Lebbeus were one and the same person. Not much is known about his later history. Tradition connects him with the foundation of the church at Edessa, in Armenia. Some accounts narrated that he went to northern Persia where he was martyred in Kara Kalisa near the Caspian Sea.
11. Simon the Patriot (also the Zealot): Little is known about this apostle. According to some researchers, he preached the Gospel throughout North Africa up to Mauritania and also went to Britain. There is also a church tradition, which says that he was crucified by the Romans in Caistor, in Britain, and subsequently buried there around A.D. 61. Other accounts have it that he went to Persia from Britain and was martyr there by being sawn alive.
12. Judas Iscariot: The apostle who played the role of Christ’s betrayer as foretold by King David through the assistance of the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:16-17). It was a prophecy in the Scriptures made hundreds of years before that must be fulfilled (Matthew 26:54-56). The lord Jesus, Himself, reiterated this event when He predicted His betrayal (Matthew 26:20-25, Mark 14:17-21, Luke 22:21-23, John 13:21-30), for He knew what was destined to happen (John 6:64-65). The Gospel of John tells us that “the devil put the thought of betraying Jesus in Judas’ heart” (John 13:2), and that Judas must fulfill his role in the Scripture’s prophecy (John 13:18). Note also that in John 13:27, after Judas took the bread, Satan entered him, and the Lord Jesus told him: “What you must do, do it quickly.” And in John 13:28, it is stated that “no one at the table knew for what reason he said this to him.” It is, therefore, clear that no other disciple knew about the task that Judas must do, except for John which later on testified to Judas’ deliverance (John 21:24). This is perhaps why it is only in John’s Gospel that this testimony was written. In a deeper sense, the “betrayal” was predestined and there was nothing Judas could do about it other than fulfilled his role in the prophecy. After his repentance and suicide (Matthew 27:3-10), Judas was replaced, through the proposal of the remaining apostles, by Matthias (Acts 1:23-26). Although he was replaced, Judas was Jesus’ beloved (Matthew 13:23-25) and his place in Christ’s grace remained (John 21:20-23), so that Judas was with his fellow apostles in Christ’s resurrection (1Corithians 15:5).
(1) Many historians and biblical scholars consider Clement of Rome (Clement I, c.100) as the first pope; because he wrote a letter of advice to the Christians of Corinth. This is sometimes cited as the first postapostolic (papal) document, but has no historical basis since the Roman church was not yet organized during his time. Historical studies point to the fact that it was only in the fourth century that the papacy was genuinely established. It was in the Council of Sardica (343-344), presided through by Julius I, that Peter was declared a bishop of Rome, and not without opposition from Roman prelates. (2) King Herod (Agrippa I) was “punished by an angel of the Lord because he did not give glory to God He was eaten by worms and died.” (Acts 12:23). According to historical records, King Herod died in Caesarea in A.D. 44. (3) According to the non-biblical text, Acts of Andrew, he was martyred at Patras in Greece. He was said to have died nailed to an X-shaped cross (hence the term St. Andrew’s Cross). (4) In the Gospels according to Matthew and Mark, listed as Thaddeus (Matthew 10:1-4, Mark 3:16-19), but in the Gospel according to Luke, the name given was Judas (Jude), son of James (Luke 6:12-16, Acts 1:13).
Trivia of 12
The number twelve is often used as a sales unit in trade, and is often referred to as a dozen. Twelve dozen are known as a gross.
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A group of twelve things is called a duodecad.
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A twelve-sided polygon is a dodecagon. A twelve-faced polyhedron is a dodecahedron. Regular cubes and octahedrons both have 12 edges, while regular icosahedrons have 12 vertices.
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In the Periodic Table, 12 is the Atomic number of magnesium, a light, silvery-white, malleable, ductile, metallic chemical element.
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The duodenum (from Latin duodecim, meaning “twelve”) is the first part of the small intestine, that is about 12 inches long. More precisely, this section of the intestine was measured not in inches but in fingerwidths. In fact, in German the name of the duodenum is Zwölffingerdarm, and in Dutch the name is twaalfvingerige darm, both meaning “twelve-finger bowel.”
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Vogue Magazine, January 1, 1963, featuring the fashion of 1963
A salitang “vogue” ay patungkol sa umiiral o popular na style o accepted fashion ng bawat panahon. Ito ay halaw sa salitang French na patungkol naman sa “paggaod sa isang bangka” upang maayos na maigiya ito sa ibabaw ng tubig at makarating sa paruroonan.