Wednesday, February 29, 2012

February 29

February issues of different magazines

February 29
February 29 (1988): AutoWeek Magazine
On the Cover: Car Preview: The 1989 Capri

Events that happened on February 29:
1932 – Theodore Roosevelt Jr (1887-1944) became governor-general of the Philippines succeeding Dwight Filley Davis (1879-1945).
1960 – The Philippine Tuberculosis Society Inc. was incorporated as a non-stock, non-profit, private institution.

Personalities and celebrities born on February 29:
1848 – Roman Basa, second president of the Katipunan – in San Roque, Cavite. (d. February 6, 1897)
Johnny Delgado, starring in the indie film
Ang Huling Araw ng Linggo by Cinemalaya.

1948 – Johnny Delgado (real name Juan Marasigan Feleo), writer, actor, comedian and director – in Manila. (d. November 19, 2009)

          To laymen, leap year is nothing but a year in which February has an additional day. To men of science, a leap year is something that involves mathematics, physics and astronomy. But there is also a superstitious, wacky and trivial side to this occurrence. Read on and find out.

Why the Need for a Leap Year?
          In a technical term, leap years are needed to keep our calendar in alignment with the earth's revolutions around the sun.
          The vernal or spring equinox (March 21) is the time when the sun is directly above the Earth's equator (making night and day of approximately equal length all over the earth), moving from the southern to the northern hemisphere.
          The mean time between two successive vernal equinoxes is called a tropical year – also known as a solar year – and is about 365.242199 days long.
          Using a calendar having a 365-day year would result in a loss of 5 hours 48 minutes 45.994 seconds per year, as compared to the solar year. After 100 years, this calendar would be more than 24 days ahead of the season, which for many purposes, such as agricultural management and maritime navigation, is not desirable or accurate. The objective in the incorporation of leap years is to align the calendar with the seasons and to make any difference as insignificant as possible.
          By adding a leap year approximately every fourth year, the difference between the calendar and the seasons can be reduced quite significantly, and the calendar will align with the seasons much more accurately.
          There is, however, no such thing as a perfect calendar. All the calendars that have been invented since ancient times are either off by seconds, minutes, hours or even days in comparison to the length of the solar year. To make a calendar more accurate, new leap year rules have to be introduced, complicating the calculation of the calendar even more.

How the Leap Year Evolved?
          In ancient times, the calendar used was lunar in nature, having 12 months of 29 or 30 days every year. To align the calendar with the seasons, a 13th month was inserted as a “leap month” every two or three years. Many countries, especially in Asia still use such calendars. This was followed by the lunisolar calendar of 365 days.
          In 238 B.C., King Ptolemy III of Egypt introduced a calendar with every fourth year earmarked as a “leap year.” This was a similar calendar introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C., through his astronomer Sosigenes, to correct the existing off-seasoned Roman calendar. To realign the calendar with the seasons, Caesar ruled that the year 46 B.C. should have 445 days.
          The Julian calendar, like the Ptolemy calendar, was still inadequate, as it is about 11 minutes 14 seconds longer than the solar year, and it was off season by one day every 128 years and 86 days. By the year 1580, the accumulated error of the Julian calendar caused the spring equinox to fall on March 11, or ten days earlier than it should.
          So in 1582, on the advice of astronomers, Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585) corrected the difference between season and calendar by ordering ten days dropped from October 15, 1582. This procedure restored the next vernal equinox to its proper date. To correct the Julian calendar’s errors regularly, the pope decreed that February would have an extra day in century years that could be divided by 400, such as 1600 and 2000, but not in others, such as 1700, 1800 and 1900. This is the calendar in use today in most part of the world.
          Although the Gregorian calendar is very accurate in terms of its computation and incorporation of leap year, it will still need some modification in about 3,240 years.

Leap Year Tradition and Superstition
          In most societies today, it is okay for a woman to propose marriage to a man. But that was not the case during the early times. When the rules of courtship were stricter, women were only allowed to pop the marital question every 29th of February, which of course happens only every four years.
          This belief was of mixed pagan and Christian origin. Legend has it that a would-be saint named Bridget complained to another would-be saint, Patrick, about women having to wait for so long for a man to propose marriage. So Patrick said the yearning ladies could propose on this one day in February during the leap year.
          According to old English law, February 29th was ignored and had no legal status. Folks assumed that traditions would also have no status on that day. It was also reasoned that since the leap year day existed to fix a problem in the calendar, it could also be used to fix an old and unjust custom that only let men propose marriage.
          The first documentation of this practice dates back to 1288, when Scotland supposedly passed a law that allowed women to propose marriage to the man of their choice in that year. Tradition states they also made it law that any man who declined a proposal in a leap year must pay a fine. The fine could range from a kiss to payment for a silk dress or a pair of gloves.
          In the Philippines, the so-called pikot marriage, most probably, was the offshoot of this tradition. Filipino men, during the 19th and 20th century, tried earnestly to avoid any contact with women on February 29. During the entirety of the leap year, the men are evidently more aloof than the women, especially those that don’t want to get “tied up.”
          On the other hand, Greek superstition dictates that couples have bad luck if they marry during a leap year. Apparently one in five engaged couples in Greece would avoid planning their wedding during a leap year.

Leap Year Trivia
          February 29, 2012 will fall on a Wednesday. Notice that there will be five Wednesdays on this particular leap month. The next time it will happen is on 2412. This is because the Gregorian calendar repeats the same weekdays every 400-year cycle.
          In most jurisdictions, people born on February 29 will have their legal birthdays on February 28 of regular years. This means that a person born on February 29, 2012 will have reached his legal age of 18 on February 28, 2030.
          The Guinness Book record holder for the longest personal name, Wolfe+585 (letters), was also born on February 29 in 1904.
          The only notable person known to have both been born and died on February 29 was James Wilson (1812–1880), the Premier of Tasmania.
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Sylvia Sidney on the cover of Film Weekly Magazine
February 29, 1936 issue
Larawang Tribiya
          Ang tunay na pangalan ng American-born Jewish broadway, film at television actress na si Sylvia Sidney as Sophia Saperstein Kosow (1910-1999). Pinalitan ng kaniyang ina ang kanilang pangalan nang mag-asawa itong muli kay Sigmund Sidney. Nag-artista siya sa edad na 15-anyos. Karaniwang ang papel niya sa pelikula ay kasintahan o kapatid ng isang gangster. Nakatambal niya ang mga bigating actor ng Hollywood na sina Spencer Tracy, Henry Fonda, Joel McCrea, Fredric March, Cary Grant at James Cagney. Si George Raft ang madalas niyang kakatambal.
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Tuesday, February 28, 2012

February 28

February issues of different magazines

February 28
February 28 (1983): People Weekly
On the Cover: Brooke Shields

Events that happened on February 28
1583 – A large fire destroyed almost all houses in Manila.
1974 – Issuance of Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) license to Twinkle Vinzons for a nuclear-powered heart pacemaker, the first in Asia.

Personalities and celebrities born on February 28:
1847 – Roman Faustino, prominent painter – in Cavite.
1877 – Roman Ongpin, philanthropist, nationalist businessman, co-founder of the Philippine Chamber of Commerce, and first treasurer of the Union Obrera de Filipinas – in Binondo, Manila. (d. December 10, 1912)
1916 – Cesar Cortez Climaco, politician – in Zamboanga City. (d. November 14, 1984) 
1942 – Leandro “Biboy” Enriquez, hotelier and world champion cockfighter.

Hindu novelist Shobha Dé on the cover of
Asiaweek February 28, 1997 issue.

Larawang Tribiya
          Ayon sa opinyon ng Hindu novelist na si Shobha Dé: “Men rarely ‘make love.’ They generally ‘have sex.’ Women equate the two and end up feeling sorry for themselves.” Sinabi rin niya na ang mga makabagong kalalakihan ay nakababagot at magaspang ang pag-uugali.
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Monday, February 27, 2012

February 27

February issues of different magazines

February 27 (1978): Time Magazine Vol. 111 No. 10
On the Cover: Muhammad Ali (“The Greatest is Gone”)

Events that happened on February 27
1779 – The Aviso al Publico was published in the Philippines to keep the people informed of the events then taking place in Europe. It was edited by acting Governor-General Miguel Fernandez de Folgueras.
1945 – Gen. Douglas MacArthur turned over the civil government of the Philippines to Commonwealth President Sergio Osmeña.
1974 – The gold refinery of the Central Bank of the Philippines was establsihed.
1986 – The Alsa Masa (Uprising of the Masses) was organized in Agdao District, Davao City. The founding chairman of this armed civilian anti-communist organization was Rolando “Boy Ponsa” Cagay.
1990 – Juan Ponce Enrile, then lone opposition senator, was arrested in the Senate building on charges of rebellion complexed with murder for his alleged involvement with coup leader Col. Gringo Honasan.
2004 – Bombing of a Superferry by Abu Sayyaf that killed 116 passengers.

Personalities and celebrities born on February 27:
1875 – Pedro A. Paterno, writer, diplomat, stateman and president of the Malolos Congress – in Sta. Cruz, Manila. (d. March 27, 1911)
1869 – Baldomero Aguinaldo, military officer in the Philippine-American War – in Binakayan, Kawit, Cavite. (d. February 14, 1915)
1899 – Pedro T. Orata, educator, Ramon Magsaysay Awardee (1971), and “Father of Barrio High School in the Philippines” – in Urdaneta, Pangasinan.
1934 – Bella Flores (real name Remedios Limson Dancel), actress – in Manila.

1990 – Megan Lynne Talde Young, American-Filipino actress, TV host, model and Miss World 2013 – in Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.
Megan Young, Miss World 2013, on the cover of Rogue December 2014 issue.

Larawang Tribiya

Demi Moore (for the film Disclosure) on the cover of
Celebrity World Magazine February 27, 1995 issue.
          Para sa kaniyang workout bago ang pelikulang Disclosure, si Demi Moore ay nagbibisikleta ng 28 milya tuwing madaling-araw. Ito ay upang mapanatili ang kaniyang “strikingly female yet solidly muscular built” na angkop sa kaniyang papel bilang Meredith Johnson sa naturang pelikulang isinulat ni Michael Crichton na patungkol sa sexual harrasment ng isang lalaking empleyadong si Tom Sanders (ginampanan ni Michael Douglas) ng kaniyang babaeng boss (Demi Moore).
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Sunday, February 26, 2012

February 26

Mga komiks (comics) na lumabas sa sirkulasyon sa buwan ng Pebrero

February 26 (1955): Pilipino Komiks Bilang 202
On the Cover: Francisco V. Coching’s “Kontrabida’
Events that happened on February 26
1861 – The first issue of Gaceta de Manila, the official publication of the Spanish government in the Philippines was published.
1903 – Apolinario Mabini returned from his exile to Guam on board the ship “Thomas.”
1937 – Zamboanga was declared a city by virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 39.
1939 – The Philippine Writers League was organized, with Federico Mangahas as president.
1941 – The Philippine Airline (PAL) was founded by a group of businessmen led by Andres Soriano, one of the Philippines’ leading industrialists.
1953 – Historic documents on Jose Rizal were handed over to Pres. Elpidio Quirino by the Spanish Foreign Relation Minister.

Personalities and celebrities born on February 26:
1954 – Chandra Romero, actress – in Cebu City.
1964 – Mark Dacascos (full name Mark Alan Murray Dacascos), Filipino-Irish martial artist, actor and television host – in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Whitney Houston on the cover of TV Guide
Magazine February 26-March 4, 1994 issue.

Larawang Tribiya
          Si Whitney Houston (1963-2012) ang tanging mang-aawit na nagkaroon ng pitong sunud-sunod na Number 1 Billboard Hot 100 hits. Ang kaniyang 1985 self-titled debut album ay naging best-selling album at hinirang bilang Rolling Stone “Best Album” of 1986.
          Siya ang pangunahing actress sa kaniyang unang pelikulang The Bodyguard (1992) kung saan katambal niya si Kevin Costner. Ang original soundtrack ng pelikula ay nagwagi ng Grammy Award for Album of the Year. Ang lead single nito na “I Will Always Love You” ay hinirang naman na “Best-Selling Single by a Female Artist” sa kasaysayan ng musika.
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Saturday, February 25, 2012

February 25

February issues of different magazines

February 25 (2005): Gintong Mariposa Family Magazine Taon 1 Bilang 8
On the Cover: Eddie Gutierrez, Annabelle Rama and their children

Events that happened on February 25
1785 – Spain issued a royal decree ordering all Chinese nationals to live in the Parian, outside Manila.
1986 – Corazon Aquino and Salvador Laurel was sworn by Justice Claudio Teehankee as president and vice-president at the Club Filipino. Ferdinand Marcos held his own inauguration at Malacañang Palace, officiated by Supreme Court Chief Justice Ramon Aquino. Later, U.S. black hawk helicopters attacked the Palace. Marcos fled but was forcibly taken by the Americans to Clark Air Base and then to Guam.

Personalities and celebrities born on February 25:
1852 – Victorino Mapa, lawyer, jurist and the second Filipino Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (July 1, 1920 – October 31, 1921) – in Kalibo, Aklan. (d. April 12, 1927)
1965 – Maricel Soriano (full name Maria Cecilia Soriano), award-winning actress and comedian – in Parañaque, Metro Manila.
1971 – Maricel Laxa (full name Maria Cecilia de la Cueva Laxa), actress – in Manila.

Left: Mariah Carey on the cover of OK Magazine February 15, 2000 issue.
Right: Mariah Carey showing her sexy figure and one-billion-dollar legs.
Ang Perpektong Mga Binti
            Alam niyo ba na ang mga binti ng rhythm and blues singer na si Mariah Carey ay minsang na-insured sa halagang isang bilyong dolyar? Ito ay matapos ibigay sa kaniya ang titulo bilang kauna-unahang “Celebrity Legs of a Goddess” ng Gillette (brand ng razor) noong 2006. Sinasabing perpekto ang pagkakahugis ng mga binti ni Carey at kailangan niyang ingatan ito sa mga nationawide tours na kaniyang ginagawa. 
          Ang mga binti ng German supermodel na si Heidi Klum ay naka-insured ng 2.2 million dollars. Batay naman sa isang scientific study na ginawa ni Dr. Aric Sigman para sa electronic company na Braun, lumabas na sa mga celebrities, si Jennifer Aniston ang may pinakaperpektong mga binti. 
Left: Actress Jennifer Aniston on the cover of GQ Magazine January 2009 issue.
Right: Supermodel Heidi Klum on the cover of GQ magazine October 2003 issue.
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40-year-old Elizabeth Taylor on the cover of
Life Magazine January 25, 1972 issue.

Larawang Tribiya
          Alam niyo ba ang unang pelikulang nilabasan ni Elizabeth Taylor? Si Taylor (buong pangalan Elizabeth Rosemond Warmbrodt Taylor, 1932-2011) ay unang lumabas sa pelikulang There’s One Born Every Minute (1942) sa edad na siyam na taon. Nagsimula siyang sumikat matapos ang pagganap sa National Velvet (1944). Siya ay nagwagi ng Academy Best Actress Award ng dalawang beses. Ito sa kaniyang pagganap sa mga pelikulang Battlefield 8 (1960) at Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966).
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Friday, February 24, 2012

February 24

February issues of different magazines

February 24 (2004): Mr. & Ms. Magazine Vol. XXVII No. 45
On the Cover: John Lloyd Cruz and Bea Alonzo for the teleserye “It Might be You”

Ang unang labas ng Pilipino Klasiks,
Pebrero 24, 1959.
Ika-24 ng Pebrero, 1959, nang unang lumabas sa sirkulasyon ang Pilipino Klasiks na inilimbag ng Midget Publishing House. Iba ito sa Pilipino Komiks na inilimbag ng Ace Publication, na naunang lumabas ng humigit-kumulang 10 taon. Tampok sa taklob-pahina nito ang “Flor de Lisa,” na sinulat ni Ped C. Tiongco at iginuhit ni Ben S. Maniclang. Naglalaman ang Pilipino Klasiks ng mga kuwentong tapos o wakasan.
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Events that happened on February 24
1984 – AFP Chief of Staff Fabian Ver ordered the 15th Air Force Strike Wing under Antonio Sotelo to left off from Villamor Air Base. It carried enough firepower to annihilate the rebel soldiers in Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo. Gen. Ver asked President Marcos permission to bomb the rebel positions, but the president said no because many civilians will be harmed in the process.
2006 – Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared Proclamation 1017 placing the Philippines under a state of emergency, in an attempt to subdue alleged military coup. She lifted the proclamation after one week amid much protests from all sectors of society.
2011 – Charice Pempenco won as Best New Artist in the J-Wave’s Tokyo Hot 100 awards besting other international artists including Bruno Mars and Justin Bieber.

Personalities and celebrities born on February 24:
1862 – Edilberto Evangelista, engineer, revolutionary leader, and hero of the Battle of Zapote Bridge – in Sta. Cruz, Manila. (d. February 17, 1897)
1888 – Vicente Lim, first Filipino graduate of West Point Military Academy in the U.S., military leader and hero of World War II – in Calamba, Laguna. (d. January 15, 1945)
Risa Hontiveros on the cover of Town & Country
(Philippines) September 2011 issue.

1956 – Risa Hontiveros-Baraquel (birth name Ana Theresa Hontiveros), activist, journalist, politician and lawmaker – in Manila.

The Beatles
An old picture of The Beatles c. 1960s.
          Alam niyo ba na hindi “The Beatles” ang unang pangalan ng grupo ni John Lennon?  Unang tinawag na “The Quarrymen” ang grupong itinatag nina John Lennon at Paul McCartney noong 1955. Ang iba pang mga pangalan na una nilang ginamit ay Skiffle (Craze) Group, Johnny and the Moondogs, Moonshiners, Beat Boys, Silver Beatles at The Rainbow. Nang simula, lima ang miyembro ng The Beatles: Lennon, McCartney, George Harrison, Stuart Sutcliffe at Pete Best. Namatay si Sutcliffe at si Best naman ay pinalitan ni Richard Starkey (a.k.a. Ringo Starr).
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          Noong 1962, unang tinanggihan ng Deca Recording Company ang The Beatles. Hindi na raw uso ang mga grupong naggigitara. Tinanggihan din sila ng Pye, HMV at Columbia Records.

The Beatles on the cover of Newsweek
Magazine February 24, 1964 issue.
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          Nagsimula ang sunud-sunod na hit songs ng The Beatles nang lumabas ang una nilang record na “Love Me Do” noong October, 1962.
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          Nang magmayabang si John Lennon na “mas popular pa ang The Beatles kaysa kay Jesus Christ” noong 1966, biglang bumagsak ang kanilang popularidad. Halos nilangaw ang kanilang mga concerts sa America at iba pang panig ng mundo. Dito sa Pilipinas, naranasan pa nilang pagbabatuhin ng kamatis at bugok na itlog. Nakabawi lamang si Lennon nang mag-apologize siya noong 1971, bagama’t nabuwag na ang The Beatles.
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UN Secretarry General Dag Hammarskjold on the cover
of Life Magazine February 24, 1961 issue.
  Larawang Tribiya
          Si Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjold (1905-1961) ng Sweden ang ikalawang official na naitalagang United Nation Secretary General. Nagsilbi siya mula April 1953 hanggang sa siya ay masawi sa pagbagsak ng kaniyang sinasakyang eroplano sa Northern Rhodesia noong September 18, 1961.
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Thursday, February 23, 2012

February 23

February issues of different magazines

February 23 (1990): MOD Filipina Magazine Vol. XXII No. 0964
On the Cover: Professional ballet dancer Sofia Zobel de Ayala

Pebrero 23 sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas

          Noong ika-23 ng Pebrero, 1763, si Sultan Alimud-Din ng Jolo ay lumagda sa tratado ng pakikipagkasundo sa bansang Espanya.
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          Tuluyang napalaya ng magkasib na puwersa ng mga gerilyang Filipino at sundalong Amerikano ang kabiserang lungsod ng Maynila noong Pebrero 23, 1945.
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          Si Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita, commanding general ng Japanese Imperial Forces in the Far East, ay binitay sa Los Baños, Laguna, noong Pebrero 23, 1946, matapos mahatulan ng military court sa mga war crimes na kaniyang ginawa.
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Personalities and celebrities born on February 23:
1861 – Florencio Lerma, musician and one of the Bicol Martyrs executed by the Spaniards – in Quiapo, Manila. (d. January 4, 1897)
1878 – Pedro Guevara, politician, writer and resident commissioner of the Philippines in the U.S. – in Laguna. (d. January 19, 1938)

Ang “Totit” Ni Mars Ravelo
Mars Ravelo’s “Totit” on the pages of Sinagtala Magazine Year 5 Issue No.19, February 23, 1950.
          Ang “Totit” ay obrang sinimulang gawin ni Marcial “Mars” Ravelo (1916-1988) noong late 1940s. Ayon kay Ravelo, mula ito sa palayaw ng kaniyang kababatang si Restituto Umali, na kung tawagin niya ay Totit. Batay sa kuwento ni Ravelo, si Totit ay isang batang maabilidad bagama’t may kalikutan sa galaw at maging sa pag-iisip. Dahil bibihira ang makikitang kopya ng obrang ito, katulad ng “Ponchong” at “Bemboy,” ibinibilang ito sa mga “nawawalang obra” ni Ravelo. Mapapansing bilang isang cartoonist, ang mga guhit ni Ravelo ay kahalintulad ng kay George McManus (1884-1954) na nakilala sa mga cartoon strip na “Rosie’s Beau,” “Bringing Up Father’ at “The Newly Weds.” Sinabi sa akin ni “Uncle Mars” nang akin siyang makapanayam noong 1985-1986, na naka-impluensiya ng malaki sa kaniyang istilo ng pagguhit si McManus.
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Portrait of Karl Heinrich Marx on the cover
of Time Magazine February 23, 1948 issue
Larawang Tribiya
          Ang idolohiyang nilikha ng German philosopher na si Karl Heinrich Marx (1818-1883) – Marxism – ay lumaganap at lumukob sa maraming bansa mula noong simula ng ika-20 siglo. Ito ang naging daan ng pagkabuo ng maraming socialist countries sa daigdig. Bagama’t may iba pang kahawig na pilosopiya tulad ng Leninism at Maoism, si Marx ang kinikilalang isa sa tatlong arkitekto (kabilang ang French sociologist na si David Émile Durkheim, 1858-1917, at ang German political economist na si Karl Maximillan Weber, 1864-1920) ng modern social science. Kinikilala rin siya bilang isa sa pinakamaimpluensiyang tao sa kasayasayan ng daigdig. Sa BBC poll na ginawa noong 1999, nahirang siyang pangunahing “thinker of the millennium” ng mga tao sa buong mundo.
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