Monday, September 3, 2012

September 3

Mga komiks (comics) na lumabas sa buwan ng Setyembre

Pilipino Komiks Taon 13, Blg. 346, Setyembre 3, 1940
Tampok sa taklob-pahina ang “Dobol Trobol” na likhang-isip ni Mars Ravelo

Ang La Independencia, ang opisyal na pahayagan ng Himagsikan sa Pilipinas ay itinatag noong Setyembre 3, 1898. Ang una nitong editor ay si Heneral Antonio Luna at una itong inilimbag sa Calle Jolo (ngayon ay Juan Luna Street) sa Binondo, Manila.
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Ang Muling Pagsilang, ang Tagalog edition ng El Nacimiento ay naglabas ng una nitong isyu sa ilalim ng patnugot ni Lope K. Santos Noong Setyembre 3, 1901.
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Si Frank Sinatra sa taklob-pahina ng vintage Modern Screen Magazine September 1944 issue.

Setyembre 3 sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas

          Noong Setyembre 3, 1899, ang liriko sa wikang Kastila ng Pambansang Awit ng Pilipinas ay nailathala sa pahayagang La Independencia.
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          Ang commanding general ng Japanese Imperial Army na si Heneral Tomoyuki Yamashita ay sumuko sa Baguio noong Setyembre 3, 1945.
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Personalities and celebrities born on September 3:
1874 – Simeon Villa, doctor of medicine and military inspector during the Philippine-American War – in Malate, Manila.
1894 – Benigno S. Aquino Sr, politician and Speaker of the House of Representative during the Commonwealth and Japanese Occupation, and director-general of the pro-Japanese Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (KALIBAPI) – in Concepcion, Tarlac (d. December 20, 1947).
1894 – Simeon de Jesus, World War II hero – in Arayat, Pampanga.
1913 – Conrado M. Vasquez, lawyer and jurist – in Biñan, Laguna (d. September 19, 2006).

The Wonders of (Edible) Mushrooms
(Full unedited version. The published article is in MOD Magazine September 2012 issue, pp. 44-47,
under the tile “Mushroom Moments”)

It neither came from a plant nor an animal;
Some are poisonous and others are medicinal;
Some may cause asthma attack, quite dangerous,
But others are edible and very delicious.
You may see one in a rotten tree bark,
Or in a forest ground glowing in the dark.
Those who fear them have fungaphobia,
But modern man wants them topping a pizza.
Buttons, toadstools, rat’s ears, fairy’s brooms.
What am I talking about? What else – mushrooms!

What is a Mushroom?
          Technically speaking, a mushroom is any of the various fleshy rapidly growing spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus with an umbrella like top (called pileus), a stem (stripe) and gills (lamellae) or pores on the underside. It would be highly technical to discuss the science, the biology and taxonomy, of the different kinds of mushroom (To date there are more than 15,000 recorded species). So, for this article, suffice that we concentrate on the not-too-technical information about edible mushrooms.
          During ancient times, mushrooms were called toadstools, the “seat” or “throne” were toads sit as they wait for their insect prey. This was possibly derived from German folklore from which the word Krötenstuhl (literally “toad’s stool”), a less-used German term for mushroom, came about. It was only when the taxonomy of different kinds of mushrooms began that the name toadstools were exclusively given to poisonous mushrooms.
          How did the name mushroom came about? The equivalent of the Middle English todestole (“toad’s stool”) in other parts of England is muscheron, which obscurely mean “sudden growth.” In Europe (especially in Northern France) it is called moisseron, an Old French word, possibly of pre-Latin origin, which pertains to “moss growth.” From this etymology, the word mushroom was ambiguously derived.
          Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding quite rapidly (There are, however, mushroom species such as the Pleurotus nebrodensis that grow slowly). This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in the English language including “to mushroom” or “mushrooming” (expanding rapidly in size or scope, first recorded in literature in 1903) and “to pop up like a mushroom” (to appear unexpectedly and quickly in full form, attested in literature as early as 1590). In reality all species of mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushroom fruit bodies, though they do expand rapidly due to their biological characteristics and the absorption of fluids.

Earliest Use as Food
          People who collect mushrooms for consumption are known as mycophagists. Edible mushrooms are low-calorie but nutritious food, which may be eaten raw or cooked, and use for garnish or topping on meals. Raw dietary mushrooms are a good source of B vitamins, such as riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, and the essential minerals, selenium, copper and potassium. Fat, carbohydrate and calorie content are low, with the usual absence of vitamin C and sodium. When exposed to ultraviolet light, natural ergosterols in mushrooms produce vitamin D2, a process now exploited for the functional food retail market.
          Known as the meat of the vegetable world, edible mushrooms are used extensively in cooking, in many oriental cuisines, notably Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, and including Thai, Malaysian and Filipino, such as the lingzhi, shiitake, maitake, enoki, the black fungus or rat’s ear, and the button mushroom. It is also a frequent part of the European gourmet, such as the crimini at portobello.
          China is the world’s largest edible mushroom producer. The country produces about half of all cultivated mushrooms in the world, and around 3.1 billion kilograms (6.82 billion pounds) of mushrooms are consumed by the Chinese population alone every year.
          Mushrooms, especially the Lingzhi (Ganoderma), are part of the Chinese diet and medicine as early as the Zhang Dynasty (1600 B.C.) and its use are well recorded and documented during the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – A.D. 220). For more than 2,000 year, the Chinese have been credited with having cultivated and processed different species of mushrooms. The Chinese simply dry most of their harvest for consumption during harsh vegetable-starved winters.
          Hieroglyphics found in the tombs of Pharaohs suggest that the ancient Egyptians believed the mushroom to be “the plant of immortality.” The mushroom’s distinct flavor so intoxicated them, that they decreed mushrooms to be food fit for royalty alone, and prohibited any commoner from handling the delicacies.
          In South America, Amazon tribes have one word that refers to both meat and mushrooms; they consider mushrooms as equivalent to meat in nutritive value.
          The Romans and the Greeks explored the culinary possibilities of fungi with enthusiasm. The truffle and cronge are highly esteemed in the upper echelon of classical Roman and Greek societies. One mushroom was so highly prized by the Romans that certain cooking pots were set aside and reserved for its exclusive preparation. It was called a boletaria, and the genus Boletus shares this common name. Wealthy Romans hired trained collectors to be certain that the mushrooms on which they dined were edible. Animals and slaves were sometimes fed samples of fungi to test if the mushroom is edible or poisonous. Recipes are even suggested by Diphilus of Siphnos (300 B.C.), and in Apicius in the fourth century A.D.
          In the Philippines, mushrooms are already being eaten, albeit mostly in its raw form, even before the Spanish time. Our forests are abundant with different kinds of mushrooms, edible, medicinal and poisonous, and our ancestors used them in the same manner, as food during lean months, as medicine for many ailments, and as poisons used to lace weapons. The Chinese are the Filipinos’ earliest influence in cooking mushrooms, though the Spaniards and Japanese may have incidentally added their own twists in the preparation of the dishes.

Modern Research
          Mushrooms have been successfully used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years to treat many different types of health ailments. Western science and medicine are only recently, finally, beginning to recognize and utilize some of the medicinally active compounds in mushrooms.
          Today, aside from being part of delicious cuisines, many researches are being undertaken with regards to the curative properties of substances found in mushrooms.
          Many mushroom species produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic, mind-altering, antibiotic, antiviral, or bioluminescent. Although there are only a small number of deadly species, several others can cause particularly severe and unpleasant symptoms. In addition, due to the ability of mushrooms to absorb heavy metals, including those that are radioactive, European mushrooms may, to date, include toxicity from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster and continue to be studied.
          Mushrooms with psychoactive properties have long played a role in various native medicinal practices in cultures all around the world. Psilocybin, a naturally occurring chemical in certain psychedelic mushrooms such as Psilocybe cubensis, is being studied for its ability to help people suffering from recurring psychological problems, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder. Minute amounts have been reported to stop cluster and migraine headaches.
          Promising continuing studies on extracts from mushrooms as possible treatment for diseases. Some mushroom materials, including polysaccharides, glycoproteins and proteoglycans, modulate immune system responses and inhibit tumor growth. Others also show cardiovascular, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties.
          Ganoderma mushrooms (lingzhi in Chinese and reishi in Japanese) have been called the “celestial herb.” For thousands of years, it has been used to treat liver disorders, hypertension and arthritis. This type of mushroom is often compared to the ginseng. Usually taken as tea, it is also known as the “elixir of life.” It has attained a reputation in the East as the ultimate herbal substance, and is listed in the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium.
          In the field of cancer research, the Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor and Agaricus species have been documented since the 1960s to be effective against certain forms of cancer.
          The black fungus or cloud ear fungus (Auricularia polytricha) or locally known as rat’s ears (tenga ng daga) mushroom, aside from being a food delicacy, has also been studied as effective in reducing LDL cholesterol and aortic atherosclerotic plaque, as demonstrated in clinical experiments on rabbits.
          Both maitake and shiitake mushroom have been used in oriental medicine as early as 40 B.C. Maitake contains phospholipids, nucleotides and beta-glucans which are potent immunostimulant (enhancing immune system function) and anti-carcinogenic. The shiitake, the “nice-smelling mushroom,” on the other hand, have been used to treat colds, flu, poor blood circulation, upset stomach and chronic fatigue.
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Tampok si Gina Lollobrigida sa taklob-pahina ng Life
Magazine September 3, 1951 issue.

Larawang Tribiya
          Noong ang Italian actress na si Gina Lollobrigida ay 20-anyos, siya ay sumali sa Miss Italia Beauty Pageant at pumangatlo sa patimpalak. Ang nagwagi ay si Lucia Bose at pumangalawa si Gianna Maria Canale. Sinubukan din ng dalawang ito na mag-artista, subalit hindi nila narating o napantayan ang tugatog ng tagumpay na naabot ni Lollobrigida.
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